Opioid Medications

Question:  Is the use of opioid drugs such as oxycodone and codeine for medicinal purposes permissible?

Answer:

Bismihi Ta’ala

Opioid drugs are those that are derived from opium.  These drugs are used for various medicinal purposes, such as relief of pain or cough. Common side effects of opioid medications include constipation, nausea, vomiting, sedation, impaired psychomotor function, and urinary retention. 

In general, the consumption of intoxicating substances is impermissible according to the shariah.  Intoxication is defined in shariah as a state in which a person is insane and this can be as extreme as not being able to differentiate the sky from the ground. At a minimum, a person is considered to be intoxicated if the majority of his speech is non-sensical.[i][ii]

A state of delirium that would fit the criteria of intoxication as defined above is not an expected or common side effect of these medications when used in prescribed amounts.[iii]

If a person is using a small amount of an opioid substance, such as the amount used for medicinal purposes, then this is considered permissible[iv]. However, If he is using a larger amount of it simply for the purpose of intoxication, euphoria or entertainment, then this is not permissible[v].  Therefore, drugs of abuse such as cocaine and heroine are not permissible to use because they are not used for medicinal purposes, but rather to achieve an altered mental state and euphoria.  It would not be unexpected for a person using these drugs of abuse to reach a state of intoxication as defined above.

In conclusion, opioid medications such as oxycodone and codeine are considered permissible to use if prescribed by a doctor for medical treatment. 

And Allah knows best

Mufti Adil Farooki, MD

Checked and approved by Mufti Abdul Muqtadir Sikander


[i]رد المحتار على الدر المختار – دار الفكر – 3:239

قَوْلُهُ أَوْ سَكْرَانَ) السُّكْرُ: سُرُورٌ يُزِيلُ الْعَقْلَ فَلَا يَعْرِفُ بِهِ السَّمَاءَ مِنْ الْأَرْضِ. وَقَالَ: بَلْ يَغْلِبُ عَلَى الْعَقْلِ فَيَهْذِي فِي كَلَامِهِ، وَرَجَّحُوا قَوْلَهُمَا فِي الطَّهَارَةِ وَالْأَيْمَانِ وَالْحُدُودِ

[ii] بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع – دار الكتب العلمية – 5:118

قَوْلِهِمَا: شَهَادَةُ الْعُرْفِ وَالْعَادَةِ فَإِنَّ السَّكْرَانَ فِي مُتَعَارَفِ النَّاسِ اسْمٌ لِمَنْ هَذَى وَإِلَيْهِ أَشَارَ سَيِّدُنَا عَلِيٌّ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ – بِقَوْلِهِ: إذَا سَكِرَ هَذَى، وَإِذَا هَذَى افْتَرَى

[iii] https://www.drugs.com/sfx/percocet-side-effects.html

[iv] رد المحتار على الدر المختار – دار الفكر – 3:240

قَوْلُهُ أَوْ أَفْيُونٍ أَوْ بَنْجٍ) الْأَفْيُونُ: مَا يَخْرُجُ مِنْ الْخَشْخَاشِ. الْبَنْجُ: بِالْفَتْحِ نَبْتٌ مُنْبَتٌ. وَصَرَّحَ فِي الْبَدَائِعِ وَغَيْرِهَا بِعَدَمِ وُقُوعِ الطَّلَاقِ بِأَكْلِهِ مُعَلِّلًا بِأَنَّ زَوَالَ عَقْلِهِ لَمْ يَكُنْ بِسَبَبٍ هُوَ مَعْصِيَةٌ. وَالْحَقُّ التَّفْصِيلُ، وَهُوَ إنْ كَانَ لِلتَّدَاوِي لَمْ يَقَعْ لِعَدَمِ الْمَعْصِيَةِ، وَإِنْ لِلَّهْوِ وَإِدْخَالِ الْآفَةِ قَصْدًا فَيَنْبَغِي أَنْ لَا يَتَرَدَّدَ فِي الْوُقُوعِ

فَقَدْ فَرَّقَ بَيْنَ مَا إذَا كَانَ بِطَرِيقٍ مُحَرَّمٍ وَغَيْرِ مُحَرَّمٍ كَمَا تَرَى فَتَأَمَّلْ (قَوْلُهُ أَوْ بِمُبَاحٍ) كَمَا إذَا سَكِرَ مِنْ وَرَقِ الرُّمَّانِ فَإِنَّهُ لَا يَقَعُ طَلَاقُهُ وَلَا عَتَاقُهُ وَنَقَلَ الْإِجْمَاعَ عَلَى ذَلِكَ صَاحِبُ التَّهْذِيبِ كَذَا فِي الْهِنْدِيَّةِ ط. قُلْت: وَكَذَا لَوْ سَكِرَ بِبَنْجٍ أَوْ أَفْيُونٍ تَنَاوَلَهُ لَا عَلَى وَجْهِ الْمَعْصِيَةِ بَلْ التَّدَاوِي كَمَا مَرَّ

[v] رد المحتار على الدر المختار – دار الفكر – 4:42

وَفِي كَافِي الْحَاكِمِ مِنْ الْأَشْرِبَةِ: أَلَا تَرَى أَنَّ الْبَنْجَ لَا بَأْسَ بِتَدَاوِيهِ، وَإِذَا أَرَادَ أَنْ يَذْهَبَ عَقْلُهُ لَا يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يَفْعَلَ ذَلِكَ. اهـ.

وَبِهِ عُلِمَ أَنَّ الْمُرَادَ الْأَشْرِبَةُ الْمَائِعَةُ، وَأَنَّ الْبَنْجَ وَنَحْوَهُ مِنْ الْجَامِدَاتِ إنَّمَا يَحْرُمُ إذَا أَرَادَ بِهِ السُّكْرَ وَهُوَ الْكَثِيرُ مِنْهُ، دُونَ الْقَلِيلِ الْمُرَادُ بِهِ التَّدَاوِي وَنَحْوُهُ كَالتَّطَيُّبِ بِالْعَنْبَرِ وَجَوْزَةِ الطِّيبِ، وَنَظِيرُ ذَلِكَ مَا كَانَ سُمَيًّا قِتَالًا كَالْمَحْمُودَةِ وَهِيَ السَّقَمُونْيَا وَنَحْوُهَا مِنْ الْأَدْوِيَةِ السُّمِّيَّةِ فَإِنَّ اسْتِعْمَالَ الْقَلِيلِ مِنْهَا جَائِزٌ، بِخِلَافِ الْقَدْرِ الْمُضِرِّ فَإِنَّهُ يَحْرُمُ، فَافْهَمْ وَاغْتَنِمْ هَذَا التَّحْرِيرَ

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